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Interestingly, in China, in the Qin dynasty, sumptuary laws were established forbidding anyone but the emperor to own a seal made out of jade. Subsequent dynasties continued to put restrictions on jade seals. But beginning in the Yuan dynasty, jade seals, as well as seals made from other precious materials, such as gold, were frequently presented by the Chinese emperor to Tibetan political authorities as a sign of respect (Ou and Qi, 1).